Future Challenges of the Genode project
This document compiles various ideas to pursue in the context of Genode. It is meant as source of inspiration for individuals who are interested in getting involved with the project and for students who want to base their student research projects on Genode.
Applications and library infrastructure
- Chrome web browser
The Chrome web browser promises to address the most pressing security concerns of web application by isolation measures, in particular the sandboxing of plugins and the confinement of individual web applications. As we demonstrated with the Genode Live CD 10.11, Genode facilitates a more natural way to pursue such techniques compared with current commodity operating systems. Furthermore, the use of Genode as base platform for Chrome would strengthen the web-browser security by dwarfing its trusted computing base by two orders of magnitude compared to the use of Linux as base platform. This would allow Chrome to be considered as a secure interface to the web for use cases in the high-assurance domain.
- Qemu or Virtual Box on Genode
Using Genode as hosting platform for virtual machines running in Qemu or Virtual Box would enable the execution of security-sensitive functions (for example cryptography) with a minimally-complex trusted computing base beside running Windows on the same machine.
- VNC server implementing Genode's framebuffer session interface
With Input and Framebuffer, Genode provides two low-level interfaces used by interactive applications. For example, the Nitpicker GUI server uses these interfaces as a client and, in turn, exports multiple virtual Framebuffer and Input interfaces to its clients. This enables a highly modular use of applications such as the nesting of GUIs. By implementing the Framebuffer and Input interfaces with a VNC server implementation, all graphical workloads of Genode would become available over the network. One immediate application of this implementation is the remote testing of graphical Genode applications running on a headless server.
- Tiled window manager
At Genode Labs, we pursue the goal to shape Genode into an general-purpose operating system suitable for productive work. The feature set needed to achieve this goal largely depends on the tools and applications daily used by the Genode engineers. As one particularly important tool for being highly productive, we identified a tiled user interface. Currently, all developers at Genode Labs embrace either the Ion3 window manager or the tiled Terminator terminal emulator. Hence, we desire to have a similar mode of user interaction on Genode as well. The goal of this challenge is to identify the most important usage patters and the implementation of a tiled GUI that multiplexes the framebuffer into a set of tiled and tabbed virtual framebuffers.
Related to this work, the low-level Framebuffer and Input interfaces should be subject to a revision, for example for enabling the flexible change of framebuffer sizes as needed by a tiled user interface.
- Interactive sound switchbox based on Genode's Audio_out session interface
Since version 10.05, Genode features a highly flexible configuration concept that allows the arbitrary routing of session requests throughout the hierarchic process structure. Even though primarily designed for expressing mandatory-access control rules, the concept scales far beyond this use case. For example, it can be used to run an arbitrary number of processes implementing the same interface and connecting the different interface implementations. One special case of this scenario is a chain of audio filters with each using the Audio_out session interface for both roles client and server. Combined with the Nitpicker GUI server and Genode's support for real-time priorities, this base techniques enable the creation of flexible audio mixer / switchboard applications, which require dedicated frameworks (e.g., Jack audio) on traditional operating systems. The goal of this project is to create a show case implementation demonstrating the feasibility for creating high-quality audio applications on Genode. Furthermore, we wish for feedback regarding the current design of our bulk streaming interface when used for low-latency applications.
- PDF reader for E-Government use
A facility for reading PDF and E-Book documents is one of the indispensable features Genode has to provide to be considered for general-purpose computing. The goal of this work is to identify a suitable open-source PDF engine and port it as native application to Genode. The challenging part is to keep the complexity of this application as low as possible in order to enable the use of this application as a trusted document reader. Further ideas envision the use of PDF files as medium for sensitive documents combined with measures for protecting the integrity of the displayed information. For example, when processing contracts or similar sensitive documents in E-Government scenarios, the consumer of such documents expects the correct display of all the information as expressed by the creator of the document. In the event of a compromised PDF engine or a man-in-the middle attacker manipulating the PDF file, the consumer of the document requires a way to identify such security breaches. In this context, running the PDF engine in a sandboxed Genode subsystem has two incentives. First, the attack surface for manipulating the PDF engine gets dramatically reduced, and second, the integrity of the result of the PDF engine can be measured by an independent trusted component facilitating Genode secure GUI server (Nitpicker).
- Graphical on-target IPC tracing tool using Qt
Analysing the interaction of components of a multi-server operating system such as Genode is important to discover bottlenecks of the system and for debugging highly complex usage scenarios involving many processes. Currently, Genode handles this problem with two approaches. First, Genode's recursive structure enables the integration of a subsystem in a basic OS setup featuring only those drivers and components used for the particular subsystem. After the successful integration of such a subsystem, it can be embedded into a far more complex application scenario without any changes. With this approach, the subject to analyse can be kept at a reasonable level at integration time. For debugging purposes, the current approach is using the debugging facilities of the respective base platforms (e.g., using GDB on Linux, the Fiasco kernel debugger, the OKL4 kernel debugger).
However, in many cases, bottlenecks do not occur when integrating individual sub systems but after integrating multiple of such subsystems into a large application scenario. For such scenarios, existing debugging methodologies do not scale. A tool is desired that is able to capture the relationships between processes of a potentially large process hierarchy, to display communication and control flows between those processes, and to visualize the interaction of threads with the kernel's scheduler.
Since Qt is available natively on Genode, the creation of both offline and on-target analysis tools has become feasible. The first step of this project is creating an interactive on-target tool, that displays the interaction of communicating threads as captured on the running system. The tool should work on a selected kernel that provides a facility for tracing IPC messages.
- Running the Meego application stack on Genode using Qt
With Genode 11.02, Qt has become available. The most prominent feature of this version is the new QML language to design GUIs using a declarative language. This technique is targeted specifically to mobile applications and other touch-based devices. The goal of this project is to run the Meego application stack natively on Genode. First, the software components and Meego-specific Linux customizations must be identified. For each such component, it must be decided whether to port its code or to reimplement its interface. The immediate goal of the first step is running one Meego example application natively on Genode.
- Python Qt bindings
With the Python interpreter and the port of the Qt framework, the principle components for Python-based GUIs on Genode are available. However, the glue between both components is missing. The incentive of this work is supplementing our Python port with the modules needed for real applications and porting the Qt bindings to Genode. This would bring Genode one step closer to executing modern Python-based GUI applications (in particular KDE4 applications).
- Evaluation of porting GTK+ to Genode
With Qt, we have demonstrated the feasibility to run a highly-complex application framework via Genode on a wide range of microkernels. That leaves the question of looking into the other major toolkit in town, namely GTK+ as used by Firefox and the Gnome desktop.
Cairo is a high-quality 2D vector graphics engine used by a large number of open-source projects, in particular GTK+. Hence the port of Cairo is a prerequisite for the GTK+ challenge. In addition, it would enable the use of further libraries such as Poppler.
- Enhancing Gallium3D support
Genode 10.08 introduced Gallium3D including the GPU driver for Intel GMA CPUs. With this initial version, we demonstrated that the powerful software stack for running hardware-accelerated 3D applications can be deployed on Genode. At the same time, it motivates us to reach out for even more ambitious goals:
First, the current approach executes the GPU driver alongside the complete Gallium3D software stack and the application code in one address space. To enable the use of multiple hardware-accelerated applications running at the same time, the GPU driver must run separated from the Gallium3D code as done on Linux. The preliminary interfaces for this decomposition are already in place but there are several open questions. Most importantly, the page-fault handling of buffer objects mapped in the application's address space.
Second, we'd like to complement our current Intel GMA GPU driver with interrupt-based synchronization, namely vblank handling. This requires an understanding of the Intel GMA interrupt code and the enhancement of our driver environment.
Third, we desire the use of further Gallium3D drivers, in particular the Nouveau and r300 drivers. The basic approach to bring these drivers to Genode is the same as for Intel GMA but the respective driver environments are yet to be developed.
If you are interested in low-level graphics hacking, GPUs, and high-performance graphics, this project is ideal to get you on track.
- Split USB core from USB device drivers
Genode's current USB support is based on the Linux USB stack running as a single process on Genode. This process includes the USB core logic, USB host controller driver as well as the USB device drivers such as HID or USB storage. This monolithic USB process is rather inflexible. Hence, we desire a decomposition of this solution such that the USB host driver and each USB device driver runs in a separate process.
- IOMMU support on the NOVA Hypervisor
The NOVA hypervisor is the first open-source microkernel with thorough support for IOMMUs, which principally enables the use of untrusted device drivers alongside sensitive software on one machine. Without an IOMMU, each device driver for a device that operates with DMA, is able to indirectly access the whole physical memory through programming the device. With IOMMU, the physical memory addressable by DMA operations can be restrained per device. The goal of this challenge is to enhance Genode with I/O protection when running on the NOVA kernel. This would clear the way towards reusing complex untrusted device drivers running in dedicated device-driver OS instances.
- I/O Kit
I/O Kit is the device-driver framework as used by the Darwin operating system, which forms the basis for Mac OS X. The port of I/O Kit would enable the easy re-use of the library of I/O-Kit-based device drivers on Genode. As foundation of this project, we recommend to use the DDE Kit API featured by Genode.
- Support for multi-touch input devices
The efforts towards enabling mobile application stacks such as Meego and Android on Genode must be accompanied by a revision of Genode's Input session interface to accommodate multi-touch input devices. First, existing APIs such as multi-touch support in X11, Qt, and Android should be analysed. Based on these findings, we expect a proposal for changing Genode's input interface. The interface extension should be validated by a example driver implementing the interface as well as an example applications.
- Copy-on-write memory manager
Genode's managed dataspaces provide a generalized page-table concept, enabling servers to provide on-demand paged memory objects (dataspaces) to clients. This concept is showcased by the ISO9660 driver, which provides on-demand paged ROM dataspaces to its clients. Depending on the access pattern of the client, the ISO9660 server loads the used parts of the ROM file from CDROM. Managed dataspaces principally allow for a wide variety of interesting applications such as the transparent migration of non-local and local memory in a NUMA system, sparse dataspaces, swapping, and copy-on-write dataspaces. The goal of this project is a dataspace manager that implements copy-on-write semantics combined with a merging technique optimizing the memory footprint at runtime. Pages of two managed dataspaces that share the same content should be provided via read-only page sharing. If one client attempts to change the content of a shared page, a new physical copy of the page get created. Vice versa, if the content of different pages converge, the sharing should be re-established. This work is a follow-up of the diploma thesis of Sebastian Sumpf Cloning L4Linux. On the course of this project, the managed dataspace concept of Genode will be refined, in particular regarding the creation of read-only dataspaces from read-write dataspaces.
- Using Haskell as systems-development language
The goal of this project is the application of functional programming i.e., Haskell, for the implementation of low-level Genode components. Implementing critical functionalities in such a high-level language instead of a classical systems language such as C or C++ would pave the way towards analyzing such components with formal methods.
- Dbus emulation
Dbus is a popular inter-process communication mechanism on Linux, which enables user applications to respond to global system events and announce state changes to other applications. It is extensively used by modern desktop environments. To enable such applications to integrate well with Genode, a Dbus emulation solution has to be developed.
With the availability of Gallium3D on Genode, the prospect for incorporating further projects of the Linux graphics ecosystem into Genode arises. Wayland is a window server especially designed to be used with Gallium3D. Its design has many similarities with Genode's Nitpicker GUI server, in particular the decision to move window handling policies to the client and thereby minimize the complexity of the GUI server. Whereas Nitpicker was designed for high security, Wayland is targeted to creating GUIs with fluid and tearless animations using hardware-accelerated graphics. We believe that because of the many conceptual parallels with Nitpicker, Wayland would fit very well into the Genode system. However, as a prerequisite for this project, Genode's Gallium3D support must be decomposed first. See the challenges regarding our Gallium3D support for further information.
- Android's Dalvik VM natively on Genode
Dalvik is a Java virtual machine that is used for executing applications on Android. By running Dalvik directly on Genode, the Linux kernel could be removed from the trusted computing base of Android, facilitating the use of this mobile OS in high-assurance settings.
- Vancouver VMM for Genode on the NOVA hypervisor
Vancouver is the user-level virtual-machine monitor accompanying the NOVA hypervisor. It combines a VT-based CPU virtualization with a rich set of device models to run unmodified guest operating systems at near-native performance. Since NOVA is a supported base platform of Genode, running Vancouver in the dynamic Genode environment has become feasible. By running Vancouver on Genode instead of NOVA's original static userland would open up new use cases where the combination of faithful virtualization with dynamic applications is desired.
Genode 11.11 introduced the initial integration of Vancouver into Genode. This version of Vancouver is able to bootstrap another kernel (e.g., Fiasco.OC) within the virtual machine. However, several pieces are missing for reaching the goal of running a fully-fledged Linux OS as guest.
- Runtime for the D programming language
The D systems programming language was designed to overcome many gripes that exists with C++. In particular, it introduces a sane syntax for meta programming, supports unit tests, and contract-based programming. These features make D a compelling language to explore when implementing OS components. Even though D is a compiled language, it comes with a runtime providing support for exception handling and garbage collection. The goal of the project is to explore the use of D for Genode programs, porting the runtime to Genode, adapting the Genode build system to accommodate D programs, and interfacing D programs with other Genode components written in C++.
- Evaluation of MP scheduling models on different Genode base platforms
Several of Genode's supported base platforms come with multi-processor support, i.e., Linux, NOVA, L4ka::Pistachio, Codezero, and Fiasco.OC. Each of these kernels follows a different approach for utilizing multiple CPUs. For example, Linux and Codezero manage the association of threads with CPUs largely transparent for user-level programs. In contrast, NOVA makes the use of multiple CPUs explicit and constraints the modes of IPC interaction of threads running on different CPUs. Furthermore, kernels differ with regard to thread migration and scheduling. The goal of this project is to identify ways to support the SMP features of the respective kernels at Genode's API level such that SMP can be easily utilized by Genode programs in a largely kernel agnostic way.
- Microkernelizing Linux
Thanks to Genode's generic interfaces for I/O access as provided by core, all Genode device drivers including drivers ported from Linux and gPXE can be executed as user-level components on all supported microkernels. However, so far, we have not enabled the use of these device drivers on Linux as base platform. The goal of this project is the systematic replacement of in-kernel Linux device drivers by Genode processes running in user space, effectively reducing the Linux kernel to a runtime for Genode's core process. But moving drivers to Genode processes is just the beginning. By employing further Genode functionality such as its native GUI, lwIP, and Noux, many protocol stacks can effectively be removed from the Linux kernel.
The goal of this project is to evaluate how small the Linux kernel can get when used as a microkernel.
- Support for the HelenOS/SPARTAN kernel
HelenOS is a microkernel-based multi-server OS developed at the university of Prague. It is based on the SPARTAN microkernel, which runs on a wide variety of CPU architectures including Sparc, MIPS, and PowerPC. This broad platform support makes SPARTAN an interesting kernel to look at alone. But a further motivation is the fact that SPARTAN does not follow the classical L4 road, providing a kernel API that comes with an own terminology and different kernel primitives. This makes the mapping of SPARTAN's kernel API to Genode a challenging endeavour and would provide us with feedback regarding the universality of Genode's internal interfaces. Finally, this project has the potential to ignite a further collaboration between the HelenOS and Genode communities.
- Support for the seL4 kernel
The seL4 kernel developed by NICTA and OK-Labs is the first formally verified microkernel. It runs on the x86 and ARM architectures and supports the execution of a paravirtualized version of Linux on top. Even though seL4 is proprietary technology, a free binary release and the specification of the kernel API has been published early 2011. Being a capability-based kernel, seL4 is in the line of the current-generation L4 kernels alongside NOVA and Fiasco.OC. Genode already supports the latter two kernel, which hints at the feasibility to support seL4 as well. Currently, the seL4 kernel comes with a rather static user land, which is far from utilizing the full potential of the kernel with regard to dynamic resource management. By adapting Genode to seL4, a rich dynamic application workload would become available to this kernel, which could potentially spawn interest in extending the formal verification efforts at NICTA to the Genode system executing dynamic real-world applications.
- Support for the Barrelfish kernel
`Barrelfish is a so-called multi-kernel OS designed for heterogeneous multi-processor systems. At its heart, it is a microkernel-based multi-server OS. Its kernel provides different mechanisms than L4-based kernels. Instead of managing threads in the kernel, there is a mechanism for implementing preemptive multi-threading at user level. Consequently, inter-process communication does not address threads but protection domains. This makes the Barrelfish kernel a very interesting and challenging target for running Genode.
- Support for the XNU kernel (Darwin)
XNU is the kernel used by Darwin and Mac OS X. It is derived from the MACH microkernel and extended with a UNIX-like syscall API. Because the kernel is used for Mac OS X, it could represent an industry-strength base platform for Genode supporting all CPU features as used by Mac OS X.
- Xen as kernel for Genode
Using Xen as kernel for Genode would clear the way to remove the overly complex Linux OS from the trusted computing base of Xen guests OSes.
Xen is a hypervisor that can host multiple virtual machines on one physical machine. For driving physical devices and for virtual-machine management, Xen relies on a privileged guest OS called Dom0. Currently, Linux is the predominant choice to be used as Dom0, which implicates a trusted computing base of millions of lines of code for the other guest OSes.
Even though Xen was designed as hypervisor, a thorough analysis done by Julian Stecklina concludes that Xen qualifies well as a kernel for Genode. For example, Julian implemented a version of Genode's IPC framework that utilizes Xen's communication mechanisms (event channels and shared memory).
- Linux process containers for supporting Genode`s resource trading
Even though the Linux version of Genode is primarily meant as a development platform, there exist interesting opportunities to explore when combining Genode with Linux, in particular Linux' process containers. Linux process containers provide a mechanism to partition physical resources, foremost CPU time, between Linux processes. This raises the interesting question of whether this mechanism could be used for a proper implementation of Genode's resource trading on Linux. Process containers introduction...
- Low-latency audio streaming
Genode comes with an audio streaming interface called Audio_out session. It is based on a shared-memory packet stream accompanied with asynchronous data-flow signals. For real-time audio processing involving chains of Genode components, streams of audio data must be carried at low latency, imposing constraints to buffer sizes and the modes of operation of the audio mixer and audio drivers. The goal of this project is to create a holistic design of the whole chain of audio processing, taking thread-scheduling into account. A particular challenge is the mixed output of real-time (small buffer, low latency) and non-real-time (larger buffer to compensate jitter, higher latency) audio sources.
- De-privileging the VESA graphics driver
The VESA graphics driver executes the graphics initialization code provided by the graphics card via an x86 emulator. To initialize a graphics mode, this code needs to access device hardware. Currently, we permit access to all device registers requested by the graphics-card's code. These devices include the system timer, the PCI configuration registers, and the interrupt controller, which are critical for the proper operating of the kernel. The goal of this work is to restrict the permissions of the VESA driver to a minimum by virtualizing all devices but the actual graphics card.